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How to deploy Django or flask or any Python application on Cloudpanel using Gunicorn?

In this blog, I am going to show you how to simply setup Django application on Cloudpanel 2 with Gunicorn and nginx

This tutorial is aimed at the Django user who wants to set up a production web server. It takes you through the steps required to set up Django so that it works nicely with Gunicorn and nginx. It covers all three components, providing a complete stack of web application and server software.

CloudPanel is a free software to configure and manage a server with an obsessive focus on simplicity.
Run static websites, PHP, Node.js and, Python applications.

Django is a high-level Python Web framework that encourages rapid development and clean, pragmatic design.

nginx (pronounced engine-x) is a free, open-source, high-performance HTTP server and reverse proxy, as well as an IMAP/POP3 proxy server.

Gunicorn, short for Green Unicorn, is a popular WSGI (Web Server Gateway Interface) HTTP server for running Python web applications. It’s a lightweight and production-ready server that can serve web applications built on frameworks like Flask, Django, and others.

				
					gunicorn -w 4 -b 0.0.0.0:8000 your_django_app:app
				
			

Using Gunicorn is a common practice when deploying Python web applications, and it’s often part of the deployment stack alongside other tools like Nginx or Apache.

  1. First go to your Cloudpanel Hosting, then go to Add site

2. Create a Python site

3. Add and note details given below:

1) Domain name – www.tutorialslides.com

2) App port – 8090

3) Site User – tutorialslides

Now click on Create

4. Now install SSL Let’s Encrypt Certificate

5. Log in via SSH with the Root User and go to the directory: Use Filezilla or Else use Cloudpanel  Filemanager to upload all your Django files except env or Venv folder

Now go to domain settings and copy directory path

Now login to SSH and let’s install Django and create venv

				
					cd /home/tutorialslides/htdocs/www.tutorialslides.com

				
			

The below code will create a virtual environment called ENV 

				
					python -m venv env
# or 
 
python3 -m venv env
				
			

Now activate ENV using below code

				
					source env/bin/activate
				
			

If you see your terminal like this. then your ENV is running properly

				
					(env) 
				
			

Now install requirements.txt file

				
					pip install -r requirements.txt
				
			
Now install  Django Gunicorn
				
					pip install django gunicorn psycopg2-binary
				
			

Now migrate your Django database for the first time. 

				
					python3 manage.py makemigrations
python3 manage.py migrate
				
			

If you followed the initial server setup guide, you should have a UFW firewall protecting your server. In order to test the development server, we’ll have to allow access to the port we’ll be using.

Create an exception for port 8000 by typing:

				
					sudo ufw allow 8000
				
			

Finally, you can test our your project by starting up the Django development server with this command:

				
					python3 manage.py runserver 0.0.0.0:8000
				
			

In your web browser, visit your server’s domain name or IP address followed by :8000:

				
					http://server_domain_or_IP:8000
				
			
Now go to your project settings settings.py:
				
					ALLOWED_HOSTS = ['localhost', '127.0.0.1', 'yourip:8090', 'www.tutorialslides.com', 'tutorialslides.com']
				
			
				
					STATIC_URL = 'static/'
STATIC_ROOT = os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'static/')

DEFAULT_AUTO_FIELD = 'django.db.models.BigAutoField'

MEDIA_URL = 'media/'
MEDIA_ROOT = os.path.join(BASE_DIR, 'media')
				
			

You should receive the default Django index page or your project page.

Creating systemd Socket and Service Files for Gunicorn

We have tested that Gunicorn can interact with our Django application, but we should implement a more robust way of starting and stopping the application server. To accomplish this, we’ll make systemd service and socket files.

The Gunicorn socket will be created at boot and will listen for connections. When a connection occurs, systemd will automatically start the Gunicorn process to handle the connection.

Start by creating and opening a systemd socket file for Gunicorn with sudo privileges:

				
					sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/gunicorn.socket
				
			

Inside, we will create a [Unit] section to describe the socket, a [Socket] section to define the socket location, and an [Install] section to make sure the socket is created at the right time: and paste below code.

				
					[Unit]
Description=gunicorn socket

[Socket]
ListenStream=/run/gunicorn.sock

[Install]
WantedBy=sockets.target
				
			

Save and close the file when you are finished.

Next, create and open a systemd service file for Gunicorn with sudo privileges in your text editor. The service filename should match the socket filename with the exception of the extension:

				
					sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/gunicorn.service
				
			

Save and close the file when you are finished.

Next, create and open a systemd service file for Gunicorn with sudo privileges in your text editor. The service filename should match the socket filename with the exception of the extension:

Note: Replace user= tutorialslides with your site user id and replace tutorialslides.com with your domain

				
					[Unit]
Description=gunicorn daemon
Requires=gunicorn.socket
After=network.target

[Service]
User=tutorialslides
Group=www-data
WorkingDirectory=/home/tutorialslides/htdocs/www.tutorialslides.org
ExecStart=/home/tutorialslides/htdocs/www.tutorialslides.org/env/bin/gunicorn --access-logfile - --timeout 300 --workers 3 --bind unix:/run/gunicorn.sock  dashboard.wsgi:application

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
				
			

With that, our systemd service file is complete. Save and close it now.

We can now start and enable the Gunicorn socket. This will create the socket file at /run/gunicorn.sock now and at boot. When a connection is made to that socket, systemd will automatically start the gunicorn.service to handle it:

				
					sudo systemctl start gunicorn.socket
sudo systemctl enable gunicorn.socket
				
			
Checking for the Gunicorn Socket File

Check the status of the process to find out whether it was able to start:

				
					sudo systemctl status gunicorn.socket
				
			

You should receive an output like this:

				
					Output
‚óŹ gunicorn.socket - gunicorn socket
     Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/gunicorn.socket; enabled; vendor prese>
     Active: active (listening) since Fri 2020-06-26 17:53:10 UTC; 14s ago
   Triggers: ‚óŹ gunicorn.service
     Listen: /run/gunicorn.sock (Stream)
      Tasks: 0 (limit: 1137)
     Memory: 0B
     CGroup: /system.slice/gunicorn.socket
				
			

Go to your cloudpanel sites settings page > vhost

Replace with below code on vhost

				
					server {
  listen 80;
  listen [::]:80;
  listen 443 ssl http2;
  listen [::]:443 ssl http2;
  {{ssl_certificate_key}}
  {{ssl_certificate}}
  server_name www.tutorialslides.org;
  {{root}}

  {{nginx_access_log}}
  {{nginx_error_log}}

  if ($scheme != "https") {
    rewrite ^ https://$host$uri permanent;
  }



  location ~ /.well-known {
    auth_basic off;
    allow all;
  }

 location = /favicon.ico { access_log off; log_not_found off; }
    location /static/ {
        root /home/tutorialslides/htdocs/www.tutorialslides.org;
    }
    
    location /media/ {
        autoindex on;
        autoindex_exact_size off;
        root /home/tutorialslides/htdocs/www.tutorialslides.org;
    }

  {{settings}}

  index index.html;

 location / {
        include proxy_params;
        proxy_pass http://unix:/run/gunicorn.sock;
    }

  #location ~* ^.+\.(css|js|jpg|jpeg|gif|png|ico|gz|svg|svgz|ttf|otf|woff|woff2|eot|mp4|ogg|ogv|webm|webp|zip|swf)$ {
  #  add_header Access-Control-Allow-Origin "*";
  #  expires max;
  #  access_log on;
  #}

  if (-f $request_filename) {
    break;
  }
}
				
			

If no errors are reported, go ahead and restart Nginx by typing:

				
					sudo systemctl restart nginx
sudo ufw delete allow 8000
sudo ufw allow 'Nginx Full'
				
			
				
					sudo systemctl status nginx
#If problem exist

sudo systemctl start nginx
sudo systemctl status nginx

				
			
				
					sudo nginx -t && sudo systemctl restart nginx
				
			
				
					sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart gunicorn.socket gunicorn.service
				
			

Done. Now you can refresh your domain your site will be up and running.

Error handling

502 Bad Gateway caused by GUNICORN

				
					sudo nano /etc/systemd/system/gunicorn.service
				
			
				
					[Unit]
Description=gunicorn daemon
Requires=gunicorn.socket
After=network.target

[Service]
User=tutorialslides
Group=www-data
WorkingDirectory=/home/tutorialslides/htdocs/www.tutorialslides.org
ExecStart=/home/tutorialslides/htdocs/www.tutorialslides.org/env/bin/gunicorn --access-logfile - --timeout 300 --workers 3 --bind unix:/run/gunicorn.sock  dashboard.wsgi:application

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
				
			
				
					sudo systemctl start gunicorn
sudo systemctl enable gunicorn
sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart gunicorn
				
			

504 Bad Gateway caused by NGINX

				
					sudo nano /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
				
			

Add those to http

				
					client_body_timeout 999;
client_header_timeout 999;
keepalive_timeout 999;
fastcgi_buffers 8 16k;
fastcgi_buffer_size 32k;
fastcgi_connect_timeout 999;
fastcgi_send_timeout 999;
fastcgi_read_timeout 999;
				
			

Change this in events

				
					worker_connections 1024;
				
			
				
					service nginx reload

#or
				
			
				
					sudo systemctl restart nginx
sudo systemctl status nginx

sudo systemctl start nginx
sudo systemctl status nginx

				
			

Still facing Issues ?

Contact me for paid support‚Äč Mail me @ tutorialslides.com@gmail.com
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